Medical Update


Study: Exercise Reduces Risk of Some Cancers Regardless of Body Size, Smoking History

Leisure-time physical activity was associated with reduced cancer risk for 13 cancers, according to a study published in JAMA Internal Medicine.1 The reduced risk occurred in obese and normal weight patients, and in patients who smoke.

Nearly 1.5 million participants from a dozen prospective US and European cohorts self reported leisure-time physical activity from 1987 to 2004. High levels of leisure-time physical activity were associated with lower risks of 13 cancers, including lung, liver, kidney, colon, rectal, bladder, and breast cancer. Smoking status modified the association for lung cancer but not other smoking-related cancers.

Two cancers, however, were linked with high levels of leisure-time activity: malignant melanoma and prostate cancer.

The researchers concluded that “health care professionals counseling inactive adults should emphasize that most of these associations were evident regardless of body size or smoking history, supporting broad generalizability of findings.”


1. Moore SC, Lee I, Weiderpass E, et al. Association of leisure-time physical activity with risk of 26 types of cancer in 1.44 million adults [published online ahead of print 1 June, 2016]. JAMA Intern Med.



Study: HPV-associated Cancer Rates Rose


The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention identified a 16% increase in annual diagnosis of cancers associated with the human papillomavirus (HPV), according to the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.1

The report stated that nearly 39 000 HPV-associated cancers were diagnosed annually from 2008 to 2012, compared with a diagnosis rate of 33 000 during 2004 to 2008. Such cancers include vulvar, vaginal, penile, oropharyngeal, anal, and rectal cancers. The most common HPV-associated cancers were cervical carcinomas and oropharyngeal squamous cell cancers. Rates of oropharyngeal cancers were higher among males than females, whereas rates of anal and rectal cancers were higher among females than males.


1. Viens LJ, Henley SJ, Watson M, et al. Human papillomavirus–associated cancers — United States, 2008-2012. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2016;65(26):661-666.



Obesity Rates Linked With Mortality in Worldwide Study


Researchers performing a metaanalysis of studies conducted on four continents have concluded that overweight and obese adults were linked to higher all-cause mortality rates, according to a study published in The Lancet.1

Researchers reviewed body mass index (BMI) data from 189 studies conducted in Asia, Australia and New Zealand, Europe, and North America. During those studies, nearly 400 000 study participants died, none of whom were smokers.

All-cause mortality was minimal in the group with normal BMI; groups with BMIs under normal levels experienced significant increases in all-cause mortality rates. All-cause mortality increased significantly for participants in overweight and obese categories, and participants in the most obese group were nearly three times more likely to die than participants in the normal BMI group. n


1. The Global BMI Mortality Collaboration. Body-mass index and all-cause mortality: individual-participant-data meta-analysis of 239 prospective studies in four continents [published online ahead of print July 13, 2016]. Lancet.



Section Editor David S. Boyer, MD
• clinical professor of ophthalmology at the University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, department of ophthalmology, in Los Angeles, Calif.
• member of the Retina Today editorial advisory board
• +1-310-854-6201;



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Retina Today is a publication that delivers the latest research and clinical developments from areas such as medical retina, retinal surgery, vitreous, diabetes, retinal imaging, posterior segment oncology and ocular trauma. Each issue provides insight from well-respected specialists on cutting-edge therapies and surgical techniques that are currently in use and on the horizon.