Medical Update


Cancer update


The American Cancer Society (ACS) has updated its guidelines for colorectal cancer screening, lowering the age at which regular screening should begin.1 The ACS now recommends that people at average risk of colorectal cancer begin regular screening at age 45, 5 years younger than the previous ACS guideline.

The guidelines were revised after an analysis by researchers showed that new cases of colorectal cancer are occurring at an increasing rate in younger adults. Beginning screening for individuals at average risk at age 45 will save lives, the ACS asserted in a press release announcing the change.1

1. American Cancer Society Updates Colorectal Cancer Screening Guideline [press release]. American Cancer Society. May 30, 2018. Accessed September 12, 2018.



Frequent use of digital media is associated with symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), according to a study published in JAMA.1 Researchers surveyed 3,051 adolescents aged 15 and 16 years in a longitudinal cohort survey study. The researchers found that a statistically significantly higher probability of experiencing symptoms of ADHD coincided with use of each additional digital media activity at baseline. The mean number of digital media used with high frequency at baseline among the 2,587 adolescents who did not report significant symptoms of ADHD at baseline was 3.62. Social media use was the most common digital media activity reported, with 1,398 students reporting high-frequency checking of social media.

Students who reported no high-frequency use of digital media at baseline (495 students) had a 4.6% mean rate of experiencing symptoms of ADHD across follow-ups. Those who reported seven high-frequency digital media activities (114 students) had a 9.5% mean rate of experiencing symptoms of ADHD across follow-ups. Those who reported 14 high-frequency digital media activities (51 students) had a 10.5% mean rate of experiencing symptoms of ADHD across follow-ups. According to the researchers, further research is needed to determine whether this association is causal.

1. Chaelin RK, Cho J, Stone MD, et al. Association of digital media use with subsequent symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder among adolescents. JAMA. 2018;320(3):225-263



Among American adults, a high level of total dairy consumption was protective for total and cerebrovascular mortality, whereas a high level of milk consumption alone was associated with a higher risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), according to a recent study and meta-analysis.1,2 The meta-analysis included 12 prospective cohort studies with 636,726 participants who were followed for approximately 15 years.1 In addition, researchers analyzed data from the National Health Nutrition Examination Surveys from 1999 to 2010 to determine whether consumption of total dairy or dairy subgroups was associated with total and cause-specific mortality. Using multivariate adjusted Cox models to determine mortality risk, the researchers found that mortality risk was lower in the top quartile of total dairy and cheese consumption compared with the lowest quartile.

Using a similar model, the researchers found a negative association between total dairy and milk consumption and risk of cerebrovascular mortality. Milk consumption alone, however, was found to increase the risk of CHD mortality by 4%.

The researchers pointed out that these findings are not in line with current public health advice encouraging the reduction of dairy fat consumption, but they conceded that the association between milk consumption and CHD mortality requires further study.

1. Mazidi M, Mikhailidis DP, Howard G, Graham I, Banach M. Consumption of dairy product and its association with total and cause specific mortality - A population-based cohort study and meta-analysis. Paper presented at: European Society of Cardiology Congress; August 28, 2018; Munich, Germany.

2. Current advice to limit dairy intake should be reconsidered [press release]. European Society of Cardiology. August 28, 2018. Accessed September 12, 2018.

Section Editor David S. Boyer, MD
• Clinical Professor of Ophthalmology at the University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology, in Los Angeles, California
• Member of the Retina Today Editorial Advisory Board
• Financial disclosure: None


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Retina Today is a publication that delivers the latest research and clinical developments from areas such as medical retina, retinal surgery, vitreous, diabetes, retinal imaging, posterior segment oncology and ocular trauma. Each issue provides insight from well-respected specialists on cutting-edge therapies and surgical techniques that are currently in use and on the horizon.